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留学:TOP 》 留学用語集

留学用語集

留学に関する用語を集めました。あなたの留学にお役立てください。
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A~

AA/AAS/AASc副学士(ふくがくし)は、香港で2000年に導入された2年ないし3年の教育課程を経て与えられる学位 (associate's degree)。アメリカ合衆国におけるコミュニティ・カレッジの準学士や日本の短期大学士に相当する。ただし、香港では主に法定大学など既存の高等教育機関において、副学士課程が実施されている。その場合でも終身教育や職業教育を施す付属機関の一課程であり、大学の本科とは別のカリキュラムが組まれている。 高中(中学五年生、日本の高校に相当)卒業後に進学する基礎副学士課程(1年)と、その修了生や予科(中学七年生)卒業に「高級程度會考」を受けて進学する副学士課程(2年)に分かれている。副学士課程修了後は学士課程(通常の学部課程)の第1学年もしくは第2学年に編入することもできる。 従来から存在した「高級文憑」(Higher Diploma) と同格とされているが、こちらは日本の高専卒(準学士)や専門士に近い。

An Associate Degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges and some bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. Common abbreviations are AA (Associate of Arts), AS (Associate of Science), AAS (Associate of Applied Science; or in some cases, Associate of Arts and Sciences) and ABA (Associate of Business Administration). In the United States and, more rarely, Canada, an associate degree is equivalent to the first two years of a four-year college or university. It is the lowest in the hierarchy of academic degrees offered in these countries. It is also equivalent to the UK's foundation degree. In 2000, Hong Kong introduced associate's degrees, as an equivalence to higher diplomas. These programmes are mainly provided through affiliated colleges at universities. In 2004, Australia added "associate degree" to the Australian Qualifications Framework. This title was given to more academically focused advanced diploma courses. However, very few courses yet use the new title.

El grado de asociado es un titulo concedido despues de la terminacion satisfactoria de un programa a tiempo completo de dos anos o de su equivalente por horas. Es concedido por un community college (en EE.UU.), o por una universidad (tambien se le llama grado de tecnico). Los tipos de grados incluyen al asociado de las artes (AA) o al asociado de la ciencia (AS), concedido generalmente despues del equivalente de los primeros dos anos de un plan de estudios de cuatro anos en la universidad, y asociado en ciencias aplicadas (AAS), concedida sobre la terminacion de un programa tecnico o vocacional de estudio.

Associate degree ist die Bezeichnung fur den Abschluss eines US-amerikanischen oder kanadischen community college (staatlich) oder junior college (privat). Dieser Abschluss wird nach einem typischerweise zweijahrigem Studium erreicht. Auch einige four-year colleges vergeben diesen Abschluss. In diesem Falle handelt es sich meist um sogenannte 2+2 programs bei denen die Studenten nach zwei Jahren Studium einen Associate degree und nach weiteren zwei Jahren einen Bachelor-Abschluss erhalten. Der Associate degree gilt in den USA als Akademischer Grad, ist aber in vielen anderern Landern, besonders in Europa, nicht als solcher anerkannt. In der jungsten Zeit haben auch Hongkong und Australien Associate degrees eingefuhrt.
Academic term学期(がっき)とは、一学年での一年間の修学をいくつかの時期に分割したそれぞれの単位のこと。日本の小学校・中学校・高等学校などでは一般に年間三学期制を採用しているが、一部二学期制に移行するところが出始めている。一学期は、4月から始まる。 大学など高等教育では、二学期制が一般的で、医学部などでは一部三学期制を採っている。二学期の場合は、前期、後期と呼び、これはドイツ語や英語では、Semester(ラテン語のse-mestris,「6ヵ月」という言葉から由来したもの。Seminarとは一見似ているものの、あちらは「苗床」の意味)という。ヨーロッパでは、夏学期、冬学期という場合もある。日本の大学は、小中学校と同様に4月から始まるが、欧米では9月が新学期である。海外からの帰国子女の円滑な受け入れのために、9月入学も受け入れる大学が徐々に出始めている。

An academic term is a division of an academic year, the time during which a school, college or university holds classes. These divisions may be called 'terms', 'semesters', 'quarters', or 'trimesters', depending on the institution and the country. Institutions often have two semesters (four-month terms) in an academic year, each lasting between 15 and 18 weeks. A quarter or trimester (three-month term) lasts between 8 and 12 weeks, and there are typically three per year. Other permutations are sometimes used ? for example, two semesters each divided into two quarters, four quarters, or even three semesters. In contrast to a calendar year, in most countries an academic year starts and ends in the summer.

El ano escolar es la parte del ano en que los alumnos van a sus centros de ensenanza. Generalmente dura 9 meses. En distintos paises el ano escolar empieza y termina en distintas fechas. Por ejemplo, en Europa el ano escolar empieza en septiembre y termina en junio, pero en Japon empieza en abril. En paises como Espana, el ano escolar se suele dividir en tres trimestres en el caso de la educacion primaria y secundaria, y en dos cuatrimestres en el caso de la educacion universitaria, aunque el curso universitario empieza en octubre y puede prolongarse hasta principios de julio. Obtenido de "http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%C3%B1o_escolar"

Ein Semester (von lat.: sex sechs; mensis Monat) ist ein Studienhalbjahr an einer Hochschule. Dabei sind die Semesterferien (=vorlesungsfreie Zeit) einbezogen. ?Semesterferien“ bedeutet nicht, dass in dieser Zeit an einer Hochschule nicht gearbeitet/studiert wird. In den vorlesungsfreien Zeiten finden in der Regel Klausuren, Prufungen, Labor- und sonstige Praktika statt. Oftmals wird diese Zeit zum Selbststudium und zur Prufungsvorbereitung genutzt.
Advanced Placement Course
The Advanced Placement Program, commonly known as Advanced Placement, or AP, is a United States and Canada-based program that offers high school students the opportunity to receive university credit for their work during high school, as well as a standard measure of achievement in a particular course. Measured by the number of students that enroll in AP courses and take AP exams, AP United States History is the most popular test. In May 1951, a group of educators from three of America's elite prep schools (Phillips Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy, and the Lawrenceville School) and three of the country's most prestigious colleges (Harvard University, Princeton University, and Yale University) convened to discuss the best use of the final two years of high school and the first two years of college. This committee published a final report, General Education in School and College (Harvard University Press, 1952), which led to the establishment of the AP Exams. The first AP exams were given in traditional academic subjects like biology. In recent years the AP program has expanded into subjects such as art and music theory. There are even plans for the AP program to give computer based tests in subjects such as Japanese. The not-for-profit College Board, which has run the program since 1955, develops and maintains courses in various subject areas, supports those who teach the courses, supports universities as they define their policies related to AP grades, and develops and coordinates the administration of annual AP examinations. These activities are funded through fees charged to students taking AP Exams. In 2002, over one million high school students participated in AP courses; over 90% of them took the corresponding AP exam. Many high schools offer AP courses, though the College Board allows the home-schooled and others who have not taken a course at a high school to take the exam. Exams cost $82 each. Until the 2005 exams, exams in the same category could be taken together and only paid for once. For example, both economics, or both physics, or both government exams, for $82 per set. Starting in 2006, each exam costs $83. (It should be noted that even though the exams cost $82, some schools raise the cost of the exam by almost $30 to cover proctor expenses, while others lower the cost of the exam with subsidies.) Financial aid is still available for students with demonstrated need. AP tests are scored differently from the common A-F grading scale common in the United States. They are scored on a numeric scale, 1 to 5, with the following general meanings: 5: Extremely well-qualified 4: Well-qualified 3: Qualified 2: Possibly qualified 1: No recommendation These scorings are used by some colleges to exempt students from introductory coursework if they demonstrate mastery through an AP test. Each college's policy is different (see link below), but most accept scores of 4 or 5, and some accept scores of 3. In some high schools with an exam exemption policy, an AP Exam can be taken in place of the school's final exam and the final grade given to the student in that case is the final quarter/semester grade without the exam. The AP exam is rarely used as a course grade because the AP exam scores only come out in mid-July. However, "mock-exams", usually APs from the previous year, are often administered as final exams.

B~

BA
Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B., from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate bachelor's degree awarded for a course or program in the liberal arts and/or sciences. A B.A. program generally lasts three years in South Africa, New Zealand, Australia,India and the United Kingdom (except Scotland), and four years in the United States and Canada.
BS/ BSc
A Bachelor of Science (B.S., B.Sc. or less commonly, S.B. or Sc.B. from the Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three years in Australia, Croatia, Denmark, England, Germany, Hong Kong, India, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Quebec, Malaysia, Singapore, Switzerland, Wales and South Africa; or four years in North America, Iceland, Japan, Pakistan, the Philippines and Scotland. In North America, a Bachelor of Science degree may be a more specialized version of B.A., with more focus on the subject and less on a broad liberal arts background; for example, a B.S. in economics may require several more advanced economics courses than a B.A. in economics, and possibly more support courses (such as statistics). The B.S. is also frequently used for professional areas of study such as engineering, journalism, and advertising. In the UK, which subjects are considered science subjects varies, e.g. economics degrees may be B.A. in one university but B.Sc. in another. In addition, some universities, like the London School of Economics, offer the B.Sc. in practically all subject areas even when they are normally associated with arts degrees, while others award arts qualifications almost exclusively, namely the Oxbridge universities. In both instances, this is generally for historical and traditional reasons. A Bachelor of Science receives the designation B.Sc. or B.S. for a major/pass degree and B.Sc. (Hons) or B.S. (Hon) for an honours degree. In Germany there is no ordinary Bachelor. The B.Sc. from Germany is equivalent to a B.Sc. (Hon). Formerly in the University of Oxford, the degree of B.Sc. was a postgraduate degree. This former degree, still actively granted, has since been renamed M.Sc.

C~

Cambridge EFL ExaminationIELTS同様、UCLES(University of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate)が開発した試験。リスニング、リーディング、ライティング、スピーキングの4技能から総合的に英語力を評価する。5つのレベル(KET~CPE)およびYoung Learnersに分かれており、結果は合否で判定される。
CEGEP

A CEGEP (IPA: [?se??p] or [?si??p]; French: Cegep) is a public educational institution in Quebec, Canada on the post-secondary level. CEGEP is an English acronym for the French College d'enseignement general et professionnel, meaning "College of General and Vocational Education." While CEGEP refers technically to only public colleges, in common usage the term is sometimes applied also to private colleges offering some of the same programs. Students in Quebec who follow a general studies program complete six years of primary school and five years of secondary school (one less than in other Canadian provinces) before attending college. Colleges, including CEGEPs, then prepare students for university or to enter a technical profession.

D~

Diploma
A diploma (from Greek δ?πλωμα diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom and Australia, such a document is called a testamur or testimonium, whilst in Ireland it is generally called a parchment.

En su acepcion clasica, se llama diploma a cualquier instrumento o documento expedido por alguna Autoridad publica. Entre los diferentes nombres con que se le conoce en la antiguedad, se hallan como mas comunes los siguientes: cartula, carta o karta, instrumento, testamento, pagina o escritura. Se da el nombre de cartulario, libro, becerro o tumbo al codice que reune las copias literales de los diplomas o privilegios concedidos a una iglesia o corporacion y que se guarda en el archivo de la misma.

E~

EFL
English as a Foreign Language

F~

F-1 Visa大学・高校・語学学校などの学術機関で学ぶ場合には、F-1(学生)ビザを申請します。専門学校その他の非学術機関で学ぶ場合には、M-1 (専門学生)ビザを申請します。B-2 (観光)ビザや、ビザ免除プログラムでフルタイムで就学することはできません。

G~

GCE
The General Certificate of Education or GCE is a secondary-level academic qualification, which was used in Britain and continues to be used in some former British colonies. It is often divided into two levels: Ordinary level (O-level) and Advanced level (A-Level), although other categories exist. Since 1999 when it was introduced, the Advanced Subsidiary level (AS-level) has also come into wider use.
GMAT
The Graduate Management Admission Test, better known by the acronym GMAT (pronounced G-mat), is a standardized test for determining aptitude to succeed academically in graduate business studies. The GMAT is used as one of the selection criteria by most respected business schools globally, most commonly for admission into an MBA program. The GMAT is one of many factors schools use when reviewing applications for admission; it is typically balanced with work experience, application essays, an interview, and, somewhat less important, college or university GPA. Although a candidate's performance on the test will go a long way towards determining whether or not he or she is admitted to his or her school of choice, these other admissions criteria also play a pivotal role.
GNVQ
A General National Vocational Qualification, or GNVQ, is a certificate of vocational education in the United Kingdom. These qualifications are related to occupational areas in general, rather than any specific job. GNVQs are available to people of all ages. Many schools and colleges offer these courses and they can be studied alongside GCSEs or A levels. There are different levels of GNVQ, namely the Intermediate level ("equivalent" to four qualifications at GCSE - some controversy surrounds GNVQs and the use of them in school league tables because of this), standard it involves a lot of coursework (equivalent to two A levels). GNVQ qualifications can be taken in a wide range of subjects, however they are being phased out and will be completely withdrawn by October 2007. Alternative GNVQ qualifications include vocational GCSEs, BTEC diplomas and certificates, OCR Nationals and City and Guild progression awards.
GST Goods and services tax

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J-1 Visaアメリカの交流訪問者(J-1) ビザ

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L~

M~

M-1 Visaアメリカの専門学校生(M-1)ビザ
MA
Master of Arts
MBA
Master of Business Administration

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S~

SAT
Scholastic Aptitude Test
SEVIS
Student and Exchange Visitor Information System

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W~

Working Holidayワーキングホリデー(Working Holiday)とは、二国間の協定に基づいて、青年(18歳~25歳または30歳)が異なった文化(相手国)の中で休暇を楽しみながら、その間の滞在資金を補うために一定の就労をすることを認める査証及び出入国管理上の特別な制度である。 政府間でワーキングホリデー・ビザに関する協定を結んでいるのはオーストラリア、ニュージーランド、カナダ、フランス、ドイツ、イギリス、韓国の7カ国である。 原則として各相手国ごとに一生に一度しか利用できない。ただし、オーストラリアについては2005年11月より一定の条件を満たすことにより2回目のビザ取得が可能になった。

A working holiday visa is a travel permit which allows travellers to undertake employment in the country issuing the visa for the purpose of supplementing their travel funds. Most working holiday visas are offered under reciprocal agreements between certain countries, to encourage travel and cultural exchange between their citizens. There are often several restrictions on this type of visa: many are intended for young travellers, and as such have an age restriction (usually 18-30) there are usually limits on the type of employment taken, or the length of time the traveller can be employed the visa holder is expected to have sufficient funds to live on while they seek employment

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